Thursday, July 26, 2012

Cutting Taxes Does Not Lead To Higher Government Taxes

 Below is another snippet from the article I read yesterday by Justin Wolfers that I really liked called:

 The Secret Consensus Among Economists

Below is a snippet: 

"How about the oft-cited Republican claim that tax cuts will boost the economy so much that they will pay for themselves? It’s an idea born as a sketch on a restaurant napkin by conservative economist Art Laffer. Perhaps when the top tax rate was 91 percent, the idea was plausible. Today, it’s a fantasy. The Booth poll couldn’t find a single economist who believed that cutting taxes today will lead to higher government revenue – even if we lower only the top tax rate. "

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Technology Tips for Your College Student

Technology Tips for Your College Student

Jul 25, 2012
By Dave Edstrom
I have one son who finished his master’s degree last fall, another son who is an upcoming senior in college, and my youngest son is leaving for college this fall. There are a few technology tips that have cost me a little money, but saved my sons’ time. Perhaps these tips might be worth considering for your college-age daughters, sons, or any college-age student who you might know. Some of these tips apply to anyone who uses a computer as well.
Francis Ford Coppola, the famous director, did almost all the right things to protect his valuable work on his computer. He had a backup system that was state of the art. The backup system had multiple disk drives with the ability to recover even if an entire disk drive was lost. Then, in September 2007, while he was away, his Buenos Aires home was robbed and the thieves took his computer and his backup drives. He lost all of the scripts and pre-production work to a film he was working on, as well as 15 years of data. To no avail, Coppola offered a reward for the computer and backup drives.
My oldest son, John, was coming home before Christmas 2010 from Virginia Tech and had his notebook computer with him. He was doing some part-time work for a company that was working on a government bid. John had written lots of software and had put together a presentation on how everything worked. He decided to finish up the work and send it in once he got home.
When he arrived home, his notebook computer would not power up. The motherboard had died during the trip home. I saw the panic in his eyes when he told me his notebook was dead and he left his backup drive back at school. When I reminded him of the cloud backup he had on his notebook, his eyes lit up with joy and relief. He was able to finish his work on the PC at home, then e-mail the source code and the presentation to the company he was working for. The $69 I paid for the year-long cloud backup service for him paid for itself many, many times over. Without that cloud backup, he would have been forced to drive back to school, get the backup drive, and put it on a new computer before he could finish the work.
Coppola was not given the best advice on protecting his data. Coppola would have benefited from a conversation with someone like me who is both paranoid and anal when it comes to protecting data. Here are the points that I drive home with my sons regarding data:
  1. Computers are cheap; data is expensive.
  2. Computers will die – always at the worst time.
  3. Install software that AUTOMATICALLY BACKS UP your computer in two DIFFERENT locations.
    • On a backup drive in your room.
    • In the cloud.
The key point on No. 3 is that the backups must be automatic and must be done in the background. If your son or daughter has a system where they need to remember when to start the backup, that will always come back to bite them. What happens is that everyone has good intentions starting out, but then they are working late at night, get in a rush, forget to do a backup, and that’s when disaster strikes. Then the hard work begins. Rewriting a paper that took 10 hours the night before it’s due is a life lesson that most would rather avoid than learn first-hand. That example could actually be a best-case scenario. Imagine that you are in a field where it is not just one paper, but a few months' worth of work. Then what?
For obvious reasons I won’t make specific recommendations on automatic local and cloud backup services except for one point to consider. It’s best to stay away from Billy Bob’s Better Backup and go with a big name. The last thing you need is for your son or daughter to do all the right things only to have the software be buggy and not work or even worse, for the cloud backup service to go out of business, taking all of the data with them when it’s needed the most. It goes without saying that all of your data should be encrypted in the cloud. This is usually an easy-to-turn-on option from your cloud backup supplier. Sometimes it is the default option.
The other habit I tell my boys to do is to mail a copy of what they are working on to their school or personal e-mail account as well. Most e-mail is stored on servers someplace else and not locally on your notebook. Mailing a copy of an important term paper is also a cheap way to do version control.
Here are a few other pieces of advice worth thinking about. I have owned 14 notebook computers. Thirteen of those have lost their display. Maybe I’m just unlucky, but I don’t think so. If you buy an extended warranty, get the screen covered. If you are buying a computer for your college student, you must go through the scenario of what happens when it breaks. Is there an on-site depot to take care of the computer immediately? Does it have to be taken to the store and mailed out to a repair center? What do they do if it takes two weeks to get their computer repaired?
Since John was majoring in computer science, I purchased an on-site warranty. One could easily argue that was overkill. However, my son definitely appreciated it when his system had problems, and three times in 4 years the tech showed up at John’s room to fix it immediately. Was that worth it to John? Absolutely.
Do you want the PC or Mac you are buying your college-age student today to still be peppy a few years from now? Put as much memory in the computer as you can afford and that makes sense. I personally like the idea of those cables that can lock a PC or Mac to a piece of furniture. I bought those for my sons as well. When I travel, I use them on the road all the time.
The last topic is software. Keeping your software up to date is the smartest thing your college student can do to protect against the bad guys out there on the net. Again, I won’t make recommendations, but I would look at what the OS providers offer. At a minimum for a PC, you should consider Microsoft Security Essentials. Whether it is a PC, Mac or Linux system, it is important to understand the security options. Personally, I think it is better to err on the side of security that is too strong. There are lots of articles on computer security that summarize the big steps to consider. Many colleges and universities have security software that is already installed when students get on the school network. Schools do not want worms, malware, viruses, Trojans, bots, spyware, scareware and the countless ways the bad guys try to cause havoc or steal data/systems. Keeping the school’s security software might appear to be a pain to students, but it is usually a very good idea and sometimes legally required.
As parents, we all want our kids to have a great experience at college. Making sure they are not stressed because they may lose a lot of valuable work only takes a few smart steps. Yes, I am paranoid and anal when it comes to computers, but it has worked out well for the Edstrom boys, and maybe it can work for your daughters or sons too.

The Truth About The Stimulus

I really enjoy the Zite app on my iPhone.  Below is an article today by Justin Wolfers that I really liked called:

 The Secret Consensus Among Economists

Below is a snippet:

"Let’s start with Obama’s stimulus. The standard Republican talking point is that it failed, meaning it didn’t reduce unemployment. Yet in a survey of leading economists conducted by the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business, 92 percent agreed that the stimulus succeeded in reducing the jobless rate. On the harder question of whether the benefit exceeded the cost, more than half thought it did, one in three was uncertain, and fewer than one in six disagreed.
Or consider the widely despised bank bailouts. Populist politicians on both sides have taken to pounding the table against them (in many cases, only after voting for them). But while the public may not like them, there’s a striking consensus that they helped: The same survey found no economists willing to dispute the idea that the bailouts lowered unemployment…"

Monday, July 23, 2012

MTConnect® Institute Releases MTConnect 1.2

For Immediate Release: July 20th, 2012


Dave Edstrom
MTConnect® Institute


MTConnect® Institute
Releases MTConnect 1.2

McLean, VA … Today, July 20th, 2012, the MTConnect® Institute formally announced the release of MTConnect® 1.2    This is the third release of the MTConnect standard and provides important and significant features, such as the new ground breaking Mobile Assets framework, as well as significant changes to support a vast assortment of sensors and time-series data.

Mobile Assets are those assets in the manufacturing process that can be associated with multiple devices during their lifecycle.  These Mobile Assets may be removed from a device without detriment to the function of the device, and cannot produce data themselves, so they rely on manufacturing devices or other systems to collect data about them.   Mobile Assets will enable the communication, management and modeling of assets.  The first type of Mobile Asset in the 1.2 release was for cutting tools.   The 1.2 release utilizes ISO 13399 as a vendor neutral and portable file exchange standard for geometric and descriptive data for cutting tools.    ISO 13399 can greatly simplify the exchange of data between CAD, CAM, CAE, PDM/EDM and other CaX systems.  In 1.2, MTConnect acts as a transport mechanism for ISO 13399 data.  In addition, 1.2 includes cutting tool data such as cutter status, tool life, location, program tool group, program tool number, recondition count, measurements and cutting items to name just a few examples.  MTConnect allows for additions to cutting tool data via extensions to the schema.

An MTConnect Working Group for Parts is using the 1.2 Mobile Assets framework to define an open and common mechanism to retrieve real time information on parts for a future release.  Going forward, numerous types of mobile assets are being considered as part of the Mobile Assets framework, such as material, people, programs, and pallets.  

Dave Edstrom, President and Chairman of the Board for the MTConnect Institute, said, “This is a huge step forward for manufacturing and MTConnect.   The 1.2 release is the culmination of many smart and dedicated individuals from around the globe in a variety of disciplines who came together to create the Mobile Assets framework, as well as enhance the sensors infrastructure.   The Mobile Assets framework will open the door to manufacturing productivity challenges that were previously thought impossible.”

Will Sobel, Chief Architect for MTConnect and CEO of System Insights, said, “The advances achieved in the 1.2 release lay the groundwork for the first truly comprehensive manufacturing process information model that will enable the next generation of shop floor integration and business intelligence applications. We can expect a new level of innovation and capabilities from manufacturing software vendors because of the ease of access to shop floor data MTConnect affords the industry.”

MTConnect is built upon the most prevalent standards in the manufacturing and software industry, maximizing the number of tools available for its implementation and providing the highest level of interoperability with other standards and tools in these industries.

MTConnect® Institute is an organization that develops and provides open standards intended to foster greater interoperability between manufacturing controls, devices and software applications by publishing data over networks using the Internet Protocol (IP). The standards offer a solution to the exchange of data from shop floor devices to higher-level systems. is the location for information on MTConnect the standard, educational articles, training and MTConnect enabled products. is the site for questions and answers on all things MTConnect.

SME "Managing Factory Data" Article by Patrick Waurzyniak

The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) has a nice articled title:  "Managing Factory Data" that discusses:

Effective data management tools and techniques leverage critical metrics from the shop floor.

The article is written by Patrick Waurzyniak who is the Senior Editor for Manufacturing Engineering and Patrick does a great job with the article.  You should read the entire article, but here are the paragraphs where Patrick quotes me directly:
"Real-time data collection and monitoring of machine tools for measuring OEE metrics is essential for successful lean manufacturing efforts and critical shop-floor processes, many observers note. Yet in spite of this need for critical data analysis, a large percentage of shops simply don’t have machine monitoring, notes David Edstrom, president and chairman of MTConnect Institute (McLean, VA). Edstrom, who recently gave a talk on shop-floor networking and communication and the MTConnect protocol at the DMG / Mori Seiki (Hoffman Estates, IL) Innovation Days, says that only about 4–5% of machine tools are monitored today. "Running a shop without remote Photo Courtesy Hexagon Metrology Inc.monitoring is like racing a Corvette in the 24 hours of LeMans without a dashboard," Edstrom says. "Do you know more about your car than you do about your shop?"
Among nearly two dozen key metrics to be derived from shop-floor management systems, Edstrom listed OEE at the top, with others including asset utilization, diagnostics, statistical process control (SPC), jobs/lot tracking, cell management, inspection probing, machine health prognostics, vibration monitoring, preventative maintenance, energy costs, anywhere-anytime access to plant-floor information, and data mining.
Today’s manufacturing customers are looking for a truly plug-and-play solution, Edstrom notes, which is what has been proposed with version 1.2 of MTConnect, a free, open-source protocol based on Internet standards including Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Extensible Markup Language (XML). "Think of MTConnect as the Bluetooth for manufacturing," Edstrom explains. "Essentially, it makes machine tools look like a Web site."

Sunday, July 22, 2012

John, Michael, TIm and Dave Edstrom at 2012 Olympic Exhibtion Basketball Game

John, Michael, Tim and me attended the 2012 Olympic Exhibition Basketball Game at the Verizon Center this past Monday night.  President Obama, Vice President Biden, the First Lady and their oldest daughter - Malia attended as well.  Their seats were better than ours though :-)

 Above, we had dinner at our favorite DC restaurant and legendary institution -- Ben's Chili Bowl.

Above it is Tim, Michael, me and John during half time of the game

 Above is the Olympic team for the US warming up.
 Above is President Obama and Vice President Biden walking in just before the game started.  LOTS of security before the game.

 You have to LOVE any President that basketball is his favorite sport AND he wears white socks and tennis shoes to the game!

It was funny that the first time they went to the President and the First Lady on the Kiss Cam, they did NOT kiss.  This caused the crowd to boo loudly.  The lady behind yelled out, 'there must be trouble in the White House!" :-)   The Kiss Cam came back in the 3rd quarter (as a multiple year season ticket holder I can tell you that they NEVER have done two Kiss Cams in one game before.  The Kiss Cam went to some random couple, then immediately went to POTUS and FLOTUS who kissed.  The crowd roared this time.  That was the end of the Kiss Cam.  OBVIOUSLY, someone at the White House asked that the Kiss Cam come back to the first couple to avoid controversy.
When the President left, he smiled and shook hands as the crowd yelled four more years.  I certainly hope so as well.  We need him for the country to stay on the right track. 

It was a GREAT night with my three sons.  Oh yeah, USA beat Brazil.

Friday, July 20, 2012

MTConnect Hits 100 Members!

Big week at the MTConnect Institute this week as we hit 100 members!

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Machining Journal Article on MTConnect

There is a very nice article on MTConnect at Machining Journal for July 10th, 2012 by Brian Lane.

In the article, Brian states, "In its 2012 Benchmarking survey, Modern Machine Shop (MMS) asked its Top Shops about methodologies and technologies they are using to stay ahead of the curve. In addition to trends in cutting and precision technology, high-tech solutions to machining challenges and the use of advanced CAD/CAM software for part programming, MMS, in its survey, discovered that over half of the Top Shops are operating Ethernet-connected machines. Meanwhile, 8 percent of these shops are using the MTConnect communications protocol."

Friday, July 13, 2012

Joel Neidig: Manufacturing Thought Leader

Joel Neidig: 

Manufacturing Thought Leader

Jul 11, 2012
By Dave Edstrom
One of the genuine privileges of working in manufacturing is when you run into someone that is a true thought leader and a game changer. It is even more inspiring when that person is young. Joel Neidig is a Technology Manager at ITAMCO and is a role model for what we want young people in manufacturing to aim for. Actually, he is a role model for anyone.
I first met Joel at an MTConnect Technical Advisory Group (MTCTAG) meeting and immediately realized that he was very different from anyone that I had ever met before in manufacturing. He grew up as a third generation employee in the company that his grandfather and uncle started. Joel started telling me about all the cool things that his company was doing. He went on to describe how much his company appreciated MTConnect. He said that MTConnect was exactly what his company had been looking for and he wanted to personally help out. Joel is the type of person whose passion is contagious. He speaks with so much knowledge and excitement about MTConnect as well as what they are doing at ITAMCO that people get energized just having a conversation with him.
Joel was the first person to write as well as open source an MTConnect mobile app. When folks ask me, “Dave, is MTConnect real?” I don’t say anything. I pull out my iPhone, I pull up Joel’s free MTConnect app, pull up a machine tool some place on planet earth, remotely monitor exactly what that machine tool is doing and say, “there’s an app for that.” Yes, MTConnect is very real and it is changing manufacturing around the globe. You can go get your free MTConnect app today for Apple or Android thanks to Joel.
When I suggested that we have an MTConnect conference, I had a high degree of confidence in its success because of the tremendous talent of the MTCTAG members. This is the secret sauce of MTConnect — the brains and passion of the many, many manufacturing and software experts that built MTConnect from the ground up. That was the basis for the first-ever [MC]2, MTConnect: Connecting Manufacturing Conference.
One of the most difficult areas for [MC]2 2011 was the hands-on labs. This was a real challenge because it was 6 hours of hands-on software programming labs and it was something that was very atypical for a manufacturing conference. Most manufacturing conferences are a lineup of speakers with no hands-on programming component to them. Finding talented software programmers who are willing to give up their time to help out is incredibly difficult in the manufacturing arena. I did not have to ask Joel; he volunteered. Joel and I worked together to create the 2-hour lab called MTConnect 101: Fundamentals of MTConnect Workshop. This is available today at for anyone who wants to learn about how MTConnect really works. We also have hands-on labs titled MTConnect Architecture: Understanding and Building MTConnect Agents and Adapters Workshop, as well MTConnect Hello World: Building Your First MTConnect Application Using the SDK Workshop.
Joel was the lead and I was really just his helper. The truth was that Joel did not need my help or anyone’s help for that matter; he already knew MTConnect inside and out as well as how he wanted the lab to flow. All of the hands-on labs ended up being a huge success, and all of them have been watched many times on — and are available today to watch for free.
Joel and ITAMCO hosted the June 2012 MTCTAG Meeting at their Plymouth headquarters in Indiana. Joel and his father Gary, Vice President at ITAMCO, were the perfect hosts for our meeting. We were given tours of a couple of their plants. ITAMCO is clearly a state-of-the-art company. After the tour ended, Joel gave all of the MTCTAG members a working version of ITAMCO’s iBlue, the world’s first industrial Bluetooth transmitter. iBlue lets you wirelessly acquire, record, and share material information by connecting to your computer or smartphone device. The mobile application allows users to check material hardness, temperature, and collect data with an easy-to-use interface.
This is not an endorsement or advertisement for iBlue. The point I am making is that it was brilliant that Joel and ITAMCO would give out a new piece of hardware to the MTCTAG to test out. I cannot think of a better way for a company to get the word out on a new product, as well as get great feedback, then by giving it out to the group whose mission is to change manufacturing productivity by easily enabling connectivity with MTConnect.
I have three sons and it is easy to find someone who has led a long and full life and point to that person as someone my sons should model their life after. It is much more challenging to find a young person and say, “this is someone you should look up to, learn from and try to model your life after.” There are some professional athletes who go out of their way to state they are not role models. I have never understood that point of view. Joel Neidig is both a role model and a manufacturing thought leader who just happens to be young.
The great American computer scientist Alan Kay, who invented SmallTalk and Object Oriented Programming (OOP), once said, “The best way to predict the future is to invent it.”  Joel is inventing the future at ITAMCO as well as his many contributions to MTConnect. I love to talk to Joel because it gives me a glimpse into where manufacturing is going. Joel is able to predict the future because he is helping to invent it. The future of manufacturing is very bright and very cool.  It will be both fun and educational to watch what Joel does next.

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Academia Loves Stephen Colbert

Academia has fallen in love with Stephen Colbert and The Colbert Report Here is a great article in the Washington Post's Style Section today.

Thanks to my father for texting me this.   He is a HUGE Stephen Colbert fan :-)

Below is a snippet from the article:

"There are dozens of scholarly articles, monographs, treatises and essays about Colbert, as well as books of scholarly articles, monographs and essays. A University of Oklahoma student even earned her doctorate last year by examining him and his “Daily Show” running mate Jon Stewart. It was called “Political Humor and Third-Person Perception.”

Julie and I went to the Rally To Restore Sanity to see Colbert and Stewart live.

Monday, July 9, 2012

Great Time At The Fannings In Deep Creek, MD

Julie and I visited Steve and Deborah Fanning in Deep Creek, MD on June 30th and July 1st.  We had a fantastic time at their beautiful mountain home.  Steve is President of Path To Progress and a DB god.  We work together on MTInsight. 
We had lunch at the lake and listened to music at the Honi-Honi Bar
That evening Steve put some streaks on the grill, I brought up a growler from Lost Rhino Brewery, that is across the street from our house, and we also enjoyed some 100 year old Grand Marnier.   Steve is well known as the world's expert on Grand Marnier.  Thanks Steve and Deborah!

We went ATV's through the mountains.  Above is Steve and Deborah and below is Julie and me.

Above is Steve and Deborah's neighbor. Bob, who is showing me the picture of the bear that followed him when he went for a walk one day.   One of the neighbors took the picture of the black bear.  Bob told me that he was not afraid because on more than one occasion he has had to wrestle a bear to the ground to prove who was the boss.

Above is Swallow Falls in the Deep Creek MD area.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

Incredible Sports Cars at Great Falls on Saturday Mornings - Katie's Coffee

In the DC area, you should go to Great Falls between 7-9am to see the most amazing cars on planet earth.  Here are a few shots from a typical Saturday morning.

Above and below is a DeTamoso Pantera

Below is my all time favorite four door - the Aston Martin Rapide

Above is my 2011 Grand Sport

106 Degrees In Washington DC Today

Washington, DC was 106 degrees today at 5:40pm.  Julie and I were coming back from the Ocean City and we were in the Annapolis area, when I asked her to take a picture of the dash on our Quest.

From the Washington Post--> 5:40 p.m. update: The weather observer at National Airport reports the temperature did hit 106 for one minute. That would have tied D.C.’s all-time high, but it has to last for at least three minutes to count. So today’s official high will go down as 105, breaking the previous July 7 record of 102 in 2010. Also, Dulles tied its record high for the date with a high of 101, while BWI broke its record high for the date with a high of 103.

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Why Monitor Your Shop Floor - My July 2012 Modern Machine Shop

This blog post is for those readers of Modern Machine Shop who saw the article I wrote in the July 2012 edition called:   Why Monitor Your Shop Floor 
The main page for MTConnect is here at

MTConnect is a set of open, royalty-free standards and open source software intended to foster greater interoperability between controls, devices and software applications by publishing data over networks using the Internet Protocol.


MTConnect is a basic first step in linking shop floor technologies and moving towards the goal of seamless manufacturing operation. By establishing an open and extensible channel of communication for plug-and-play interconnectivity between devices, equipment and systems, MTConnect allows sources to exchange and understand each other's data. That common communication is facilitated by using widely accepted XML and Internet Protocol technology to provide managers with near real-time data from throughout a factory. 

Below is a great white paper on shop floor monitoring that compares a number of solutions:


This is a study outlining currently available applications that utilize the MTConnect standard for interface protocol.  The MTConnect Institute conducted this study as part of the "Sustainable Aerospace Manufacturing Inititative" for the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM) and The Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. (CCAT).  We are happy to say that both NCDMM and CCAT have allowed MTConnect to post this study for your review.
To review the study click Here.

I included a variety of information that you will likely find helpful as well.


The MTConnect Institute is pleased to announce the availability of a new document entitled "Getting Started With MTConnect - Connectivity Guide." This guide was created by the MTConnect Connectivity Working Group that is made up of members of the Technical Advisory Group of the Institute. The purpose of this guide is to answer the question, "How do I get started with implementing products in my manufacturing facilities that take advantage of the MTConnect standard."  This guide addresses both new and older manufacturing equipment and provides a very well thought out framework for getting stated on implementations.

You can download this document by signing in and going to the Download section of the web site then clicking on 'Instruction and Guidelines'.
To review or download this guide click Here.

Below is a mixture of videos, podcasts and articles on MTConnect.  The videos are mostly from the [MC]2 MTConnect Connecting Manufacturing Conference we had in Cincinnati, Ohio in mid November this past year as well as information on MTConnect membership.   The videos that list the individuals below the titles are of special interest and well worth watching as these are the industry thought leaders who spoke at [MC]2.

This is an MTConnect video is about 7 1/2 minutes long and it does a great job with the history of MTConnect and detailing exactly how we got to the first release.

What is MTConnect - A Business Perspective (video)
Dave Edstrom, President & Chairman of the Board, MTConnect Institute

NOTE:  If only have time to read and or watch one video, please watch the one above as it lays out all the fundamentals of MTConnect.

I wrote an MTConnect article for PRECISION Magazine that is titled MTConnect: The Holy Grail of Manufacturing and Why This Time is Different.  The article is in the May/June version.   My article is on pages 20 and 21 of the May/June edition.  
Getting Started with MTConnect (video)
David McPhail, President & CEO, Memex Automation Inc.
John Turner, Director of Technology, FA Consulting and Technology

Expert Panel: Monitoring Your Shop Floor Using the MTConnect Protocol (video)
 Panel Host: Mark Doyle, VP of Sales, I/Gear Online, LLC

Panel: How Do I Make Money and Save Time with MTConnect? (video)
 Dave Edstrom, President & Chairman of the Board, MTConnect Institute

MTConnect in Real Life - MTConnect Users Panel (video)
 Panel Hosts: Ron Pieper, Program Director-MTConnect Solutions, TechSolve, Inc.
Paul Warndorf, VP - Technology, AMT-The Association For Manufacturing

[MC]2 Videos at  NOTE: There are close to 23 hours of videos on MTConnect.   There are lots of interesting videos here, including six hours on how to write MTConnect applications.
Thanks and Best Regards,


Dave Edstrom
President and Chairman - MTConnect Institute 

  MTConnect: Different Devices, Common Connection
  MTConnect: To Measure Is To Know